الحمد لله، الحمد لله الذي أمرنا أن نَفِيَ بالعقود، ونفعَلَ ما نقول، ونعاملَ الخلقَ بالصدقِ والأمانةِ سواءً كان صَديقاً أو خصماً لدود، نحمده تعالى ونستعينه، ونشكره تعالى ونستغفره ونستغيثه، نعوذ بالله من شرور أنفسنا ومن سيئات أعمالنا، من يهد الله فهو المهتد ومن يضلل فلن تجد له وليا مرشدا، ونشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وحده لا شريك له، له الملك و له الحمد، يحيي ويميت، بيده الخير، وهو على كل شيء قدير، ونشهد أن سيدنا و مولانا محمداً عبده ورسوله، وحبيبه وصفيه، بلغ الرسالة وأدّى الأمانة ونصح الأمة، النبي الأمي الذي أرسله الله بالهدى والدين الحق، بشيرا ونذيرا بين يدي الساعة، صلى الله عليه وسلم وعلى آله وأصحابه ومن تبعهم بإحسان إلى يوم الدين. أما بعد! فيا عباد الله اتقوا الله حق تقاته ولا تموتن إلا وأنتم مسلمون. يأيها الذين ءامنوا اتقوا الله وقولوا قولا سديدا يصلح لكم أعمالكم ويغفر لكم ذنوبكم. ومن يطع الله ورسوله فقد فاز فوزا عظيما. اتقوا الله فيما أمر وانتهوا عما نها عنه وزجر
As many of those of you who have studied the science of Aqida will know – and Aqida is a science that we all must study to at least a basic level – part of belief in Allah and His Messengers is belief in certain Essential Attributes. Ibn Ashir, the great Maliki scholar and author of the widely-studied text, al-Murshid al-Mu‘īn said,
أول واجب على من خُلِّفا ممكَّنا من نظر أن يعرفا
اللهَ والرسلَ بالصفات مما نصب عليه الآيات
“The very first obligation for those who are mukallaf (responsible for their actions) and have the chance and capacity to look and reflect is to acquire knowledge of Allah and the Messengers by recognising their attributes which are indicated by the āyāt (signs) Allah has put into place in existence.” With respect to the Messengers, these are qualities or characteristics that they must necessarily possess to fulfil the role they have been assigned. Without these qualities, they could not fulfil their divinely appointed role of being a Messenger of Allah. There are three such qualities – ṣidq, amāna and tablīgh. Why they must possess these qualities is a matter for the science of Aqida. What we are interested in with respect to this khutba is the qualities themselves. Why? Because we are commanded to follow the Messenger and emulate him to the best of our abilities. Allah says,
لَقَدْ كَانَ لَكُمْ فِي رَسُولِ اللهِ إِسْوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ لِمَن كَانَ يَرْجُو اللهَ وَالْيَوْمَ الْآخِرَ
the translation of which is, “You have an excellent model in the Messenger of Allah, for all who put their hope in Allah and the Last Day” What he said and did is what we should say and do, how he acted and interacted is how we should act and interact, the qualities that defined him are the qualities that should define us. This is not to say that we can ever reach his level, for he was the Muṣtafā and the Ḥabīb, the best of those created and the best of those sent, the very pinnacle of creation. But we must strive for that – he is the template for the insānun kāmil (the perfected human being), the uppermost limit of human potential; and if we are not moving upwards towards that then where are we going? In the opposite direction, becoming more and more lowly and misguided.
So we must seek to emulate him. And while it is important to look closely at his outward acts and form, it is even more important to look to his inward reality. For, as we all know, the inward determines the outward. The Prophet said,
إن في الجسد مضغة إذا صلحت صلح الجسد كله وإذا فسدت فسد الجسد كله ألا وهى القلب
“In the body there is a lump of flesh. If that lump of flesh is sound and healthy then the whole body is sound and healthy. If that lump of flesh is rotten then the whole body is rotten. That lump of flesh is the qalb/ the heart.” What is the qalb? It is the seat of intellect, the place where intention is made, the organ that determines our qualities of character. And two of those qualities that we mention above – ṣidq and amāna – lie at the very heart of who he was – they define him, without them he could not have been who he was nor carried out the task to which he had been assigned. Indeed, his nickname among his people in his youth, even before he was sent, was ‘aṣ-Ṣādiqu-l-Amịn’ (the truthful and trustworthy). Even his greatest critics and enemies never denied him that. They would, without question, have believed everything he said with respect to matters of this world. He never told a lie and never betrayed a trust. If he made a contract, he honoured it to the letter and so people sought him out when they needed someone to look after their property in their absence or to conduct business on their behalf. Indeed, that was how his wife Khadija first came into his life – when she engaged him to take her caravan to Syria and trade on her behalf.
And after he was sent, these same qualities came to be embodied by his umma. Those who believed in him and followed him made these qualities a cornerstone of their new approach to life. So much so, that when Allah mentions his description of the believers in Surat al-Muminun, enumerating the reasons for the success of the believers, He says,
وَالَّذِينَ هُمْ لِأَمَانَاتِهِمْ وَعَهْدِهِمْ رَاعُونَ
the translation of which is, “those who honour their amānas (their trusts) and their contracts/promises.” So a believer is one who speaks the truth and fulfils his trusts, one who follows through on his promises and obligations, carries out the tasks that he has accepted and that have been given to him, and does what he says he will do. One who is honest in his words and honest in his dealings, one who does not deceive his fellows and is totally open and up-front with them, not undermining them by going behind their backs nor starting or spreading unsubstantiated rumours and innuendos. The Muslim deals with things head on and his tool, his weapon, is truth. To take any other approach opens you up to nifāq. The Prophet said,
أربع مَن كنَّ فيه كان منافقاً, ومن كانت فيه خصلة من أربعة كانت فيه خصلة من النفاق حتى يدعها إذا حدَّث كذب وإذا وعد أخلفَ وإذا عاهد غدر وإذا خاصم فجر
“There are four qualities that mark the hypocrite, and anyone who engages in any part of them has an element of hypocrisy within him until he stops. Those four characteristics are that: when he speaks, he lies; when he makes a promise, he breaks it; when he takes something on trust, he betrays that trust; and when he becomes involved in a dispute, he acts in a dishonest manner.” It does not matter if others deal with you in this way, it does not even matter if everyone deals with you in this way, you cannot adopt the same approach. You do not fight fire with fire if it means opening yourself up to these poisonous qualities. The Messenger of Allah said,
أَدِّ الأَمَانَةَ إِلَى مَنِ ائْتَمَنَكَ، وَلَا تَخُنْ مَنْ خَانَكَ
“Return the things you hold on trust to those who entrusted them to you, and do not cheat those who cheat you.” Why is hypocrisy so dangerous? What makes it so bad? The answer – it destroys everything it touches. It destroys you and your wellbeing, and the wellbeing of the society in which you live. And it is infectious – it spreads quickly. Firstly, within you, then within your circle and then into the wider community. It creates bad blood and plants the seeds of enmity. And if others are not your enemy, they are soon seen by you to be. But it is not the general right-acting body of the Muslims who are at fault, it is the hypocrites. They are the true enemies of this umma. Allah says,
هُمُ ٱلْعَدُوُّ فَاحْذرْهُمْ
the translation of which is, “They are the enemy so beware of them.” i.e. they are THE enemy. hum here acts a little like innamā – it is almost as if the aya is saying they are is no enemy worth considering apart from them. They cause the umma to shatter and make it weak. For they invariably bring fitna in their wake. Allah says,
لَوْ خَرَجُواْ فِيكُم مَّا زَادُوكُمْ إِلاَّ خَبَالاً ولأَوْضَعُواْ خِلاٰلَكُمْ يَبْغُونَكُمُ ٱلْفِتْنَةَ
the translation of which is, “If they had gone out among you, they would have added nothing to you but confusion. They would have scurried about amongst you seeking to cause fitna between you.” And their final fate? They sought to deceive Allah, but they deceived none but themselves. Their time spend among the believers availed them naught. Their companions in the Hereafter are the unbelievers and their abode a fiery blaze. Indeed, for them is reserved the very worst of that place. Allah says,
إِنَّ الْمُنَافِقِينَ فِي الدَّرَكِ الْأَسْفَلِ مِنَ النَّارِ
the translation of which is, “The hypocrites are in the very lowest levels of the Fire.”
So beware of nifāq. It is pernicious indeed. And know that it comes in various degrees – it is not an absolute, as the hadith we quoted earlier makes clear. Even the best of people were worried that some small element of it had corrupted them. Sayyidina Umar asked Hudhayfa ibn al-Yamān, to whom the Messenger of Allah had entrusted all the names of the hypocrites of the Community, “Am I one of them?” And, of course, Hudhayfa assured him that he was not, for Umar was one of the best of people and one who never shirked from the truth. But the fact that he was worried enough to ask shows how insidious nifāq is, how it can take you unawares and enter into your heart bit by bit until lying or deceiving or breaking contracts becomes possible for you and eventually second nature.
Sayyidina Umar was not worried that he was not a believer, for he knew that he believed in Allah and His Messenger, but he was worried that some aspect of nifāq had found a way into his soul. He knew that one single aspect of nifāq endangered not just him but the wider umma. A single aspect of nifāq is a crack in the ice that grows and grows until a huge iceberg breaks clear. In other words, its presence guarantees division and fitna. So take great care in your words and dealings and be ever on your guard.
أقول قولي هذا وأستغفر الله لي ولكم ولسائر المسلمين من كل ذنب فاستغفروه إنه هو الغفور الرَّحيم
الحمد لله الحمد لله رب العالمين، وأشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وحده لا شريك له وأشهد أن محمداً عبده ورسوله، صلى الله وسلم وبارك عليه وعلى آله وصحبه، والتابعين وتابعي التابعين ومن تبعهم بإحسان إلى يوم الدين.
أما بعد! فيأيها الذين ءامنوا اتقوا الله ما استطعتم واسمعوا وأطيعوا وأنفقوا خيرا لأنفسكم. يا عباد الله أوصيكم وإياي بتقوى الله وطاعته وأحذركم وإياي عن معصيته ومخالفته قال اله عز وجل في كتابه الكريم يَا أَيُّهَا الرَّسُولُ بَلِّغْ مَا أُنْزِلَ إِلَيْكَ مِنْ رَبِّكَ وَإِنْ لَمْ تَفْعَلْ فَمَا بَلَّغْتَ رِسَالَتَهُ
Allah says in His Noble Book, the translation of which is, “Messenger! Transmit what has been sent down to you from your Lord. If you do not do it you will not have transmitted His Message.” The third essential quality of the Messengers – and, hence, the third essential quality of of the believer – is tablīgh/ conveying or transmitting the message. This quality is more to do with action than inner character, but is not to be viewed in isolation. It is inextricably linked with the first two qualities, for the message itself is the great amāna with which we have been entrusted, and that amāna must be transmitted truthfully, accurately and completely without modification, embellishment or diminishment.
We pass on the teaching to those with whom we come into contact. We pass it on by means of our words, by means of our actions and by means of our states and character, just as our noble Messenger did. Especially those of us who have been granted knowledge. As the Messenger of Allah said,
العلماء ورثة الأنبياء
“The ulama are the heirs of the Prophets.” Their role in the times in which they live is the same as theirs – to preserve the knowledge and pass it on. But you must not misunderstand this word ‘ālim. It is not some exalted rank that you attain by passing some seminary course. It is something that is open to every Muslim. At some level, we are all ‘ulamā. And, sometimes, the less educated know certain things better and more clearly than the highly educated. In the river, or even in the mountain stream or village pond, you will come across things not found in the greatest of oceans. The Prophet said,
نضَّر الله عبدًا سَمِع مقالتي، فحَفِظها ووعَاها وأدَّاها، فرُبَّ حامل فِقْه غير فقيه، ورُبَّ حامل فِقْه إلى مَن هو أفقه منه
“Allah illuminates and makes radiant the slave who hears my words, memorises them, understands them, carries them out and transmits them to others. It may well be that the bearer of fiqh – i.e. the one who has understood some aspect of the deen – is not a faqīh and the one to whom he conveys that fiqh – that understanding of the deen – is more knowledgeable than he is.”
We, each and every one of us, are recipients of a teaching. And that teaching come from the Messenger of Allah through the inheritors of his light, the Shuyūkh, ‘Ulamā’ and ‘Ārifīn. It is our duty to hold fast to that teaching and preserve it and ensure its continuity. It is our duty to take it to the rest of mankind and the rest of the Umma, even to those of them who may well have more knowledge than us, and ensure that this vital teaching does not disappear and does not fall by the wayside. We have been granted an understanding of the world and an understanding of how this great deen of ours fits in to it. We cannot relinquish that understanding, and we must emulate our Messenger by dedicating our lives to transmitting it. Allah says,
قُلْ هَذِهِ سَبِيلِي أَدْعُو إِلَى اللَّهِ عَلَى بَصِيرَةٍ أَنَا وَمَنِ اتَّبَعَنِي
the translation of which is, “Say, this is my way. I call to Allah with inner sight, I and all who follow me.”
Only what is true and beyond doubt should be transmitted, not what is unverified speculation, baseless opinion or unsubstantiated rumour. Truth and not opinion. And be careful of your sources – take only from the people of a science, not from those who lay a claim to it without basis, nor from those whose words or reports have previously proven false or ambiguous and who appear not to have changed. Beware of those who claim to be in the know but whose actions belie their words. Allah says,
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِن جَاءَكُمْ فَاسِقٌ بِنَبَإٍ فَتَبَيَّنُوا أَن تُصِيبُوا قَوْمًا بِجَهَالَةٍ فَتُصْبِحُوا عَلَىٰ مَا فَعَلْتُمْ نَادِمِينَ
the translation of which is, “You who believe! if a deviator brings you a report, scrutinise it carefully in case you attack people in ignorance and so come to greatly regret what you did.”
With these qualities embodied, we will have a chance, for we will be upon basis of the Sunna of our Messenger. And any people upon the Sunna of the best of creation will have success. We ask Allah to firmly embed those qualities in our hearts and upon our limbs, and thereby keep the deen safe and our communities united. We ask Him to make us worthy of the amāna with which He has entrusted us.
إِنَّ اللهَ وَمَلَائِكَتَهُ يُصَلُّونَ عَلَى النَّبِيِّ، يَا أَيُهَا الذِينَ آمَنُواْ صَلُّواْ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلِّمُواْ تَسْلِيماً.
اللَّهُمَّ صَلِّ وَسَلِّمْ وَبَارِكْ عَلَيْهِ وَعَلَى آلِهِ وَصَحْبِهِ أَجْمَعِينَ. وَارْضَ اللَّهُمَّ عَنِ الْخُلَفَاءِ الرَّاشِدِينَ أَبِي بَكْرٍ وَعُمَرَ وَعُثْمَانَ وَعَلِيٍّ، وعن أم المومنين عائشة التي أمرنا الله في سورة النور أن ندافع عنها، وَعَنْ سَائِرِ الصَّحَابَةِ أَجْمَعِينَ، خُصُوصاً اِلأَنْصَارَ مِنْهُمْ وَالمُهَاجِرِينَ، وَعَنِ التَّابِعِينَ وَتَابِعِي التَّابِعِينَ وَمَنْ تَبِعَهُمْ بِإِحْسَانٍ إِلَى يَوْمِ الدِّينِ.
اللَّهُمَّ اهْدِ وُلَاةَ أُمُورِ المُسْلِمِينَ لِمَا يُرْضِيكَ وَلِاتِّبَاعِ سُنَّةِ نَبِيِّكَ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ، وَثَبِّتْ أَقْدَامَهُمْ عَلَى الصِّرَاطِ المُسْتَقِيمِ، وَأَصْلِحْهُمْ يَا رَبَّ الْعَالَمِينَ.
اللَّهُمَّ بَارِكْ عَلَى شَيْخِنَا، وَعَلَى أَمِيرِنَا، وَعَلَى جَمِيعِ أُمَرَاءِ وَزُعَمَاءِ المُسْلِمِينَ.
اللَّهُمَّ بَارِكْ عَلَى المُسْلِمِينَ فِي هَذِهِ المَدِينَةِ، وَوَفِّقْهُمْ لِمَا تُحِبُّهُ وَتَرْضَاهُ يَا أَكْرَمَ الأَكْرَمِينَ.
اللَّهُمَّ أَعِزَّ الإِسْلَامَ وَالمُسِْلمِينَ، وَاخْذُلِ الْكُفْرَ وَالْكَافِرِينَ، وَانْصُرِ المُجَاهِدِينَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللهِ. وَاجْعَلْ كَلِمََتَكَ هِيَ العُلْيَا وَكَلِمَةَ الْكُفْرِ هِيَ السُّفْلَى.
رَبَّنَا ءَاتِنَا فِي الدُّنْيَا حَسَنَةً وَفِي الآخِرَةِ حَسَنَةً وَقَِنَا عَذَابَ النَّارِ.
إِنَّ اللهَ يَامُرُ بِالْعَدْلِ وَالإِحْسَانِ وَإِيتَاءِ ذِي الْقُرْبَى، وَيَنْهَى عَنِ الْفَحْشَاءِ وَالمُنكَرِ وَالْبَغْيِ، يَعِظُكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَذَّكَّرُونَ، وَلَذِكْرُ اللهِ أَكْبَرُ وَاللهُ يَعْلَمُ مَا تَصْنَعُونَ. وَقُومُواْ إِلَى صَلاتِكُمْ يَرْحَمُكُمُ اللهُ.