الحمد لله، الحمد لله الذي جعل لإتمامِ رمضانَ فرحة، وعمّ سرورِ وبركاتِ عيدِه بسَنِّ زكاةِ الفِطرَة، نحمده تعالى ونستعينه، ونشكره تعالى ونستغفره ونستغيثه، نعوذ بالله من شرور أنفسنا ومن سيئات أعمالنا، من يهد الله فهو المهتد ومن يضلل فلن تجد له وليا مرشدا، ونشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وحده لا شريك له، له الملك و له الحمد، يحيي ويميت، بيده الخير، وهو على كل شيء قدير، ونشهد أن سيدنا و مولانا محمداً عبده ورسوله، وحبيبه وصفيه، بلغ الرسالة وأدّى الأمانة ونصح الأمة، النبي الأمي الذي أرسله الله بالهدى والدين الحق، بشيرا ونذيرا بين يدي الساعة، صلى الله عليه وسلم وعلى آله وأصحابه ومن تبعهم بإحسان إلى يوم الدين.
أما بعد! فيا عباد الله اتقوا الله حق تقاته ولا تموتن إلا وأنتم مسلمون. يأيها الذين ءامنوا اتقوا الله وقولوا قولا سديدا يصلح لكم أعمالكم ويغفر لكم ذنوبكم. ومن يطع الله ورسوله فقد فاز فوزا عظيما. اتقوا الله فيما أمر وانتهوا عما نها عنه وزجر.
The month of Ramadan is almost at an end – today is the 28th day of the fast. Our guest is leaving us for another year. And as with all such departures, there is a feeling of sadness and missed opportunity. Did we make full use of the time when we were together? Did we fill its moments in a manner which was beneficial? But we are not a people who dwell in the past, we are a people who live in the here and now. We do not sit and pine for what might have been, we rejoice and take joy in what is and what has come to be. We are thankful to our Lord for what He has given us and for what He has enabled us to complete and endure, we know and acknowledge that we are honoured beyond measure to have completed one of the great pillars of his deen, one of those great acts of worship that make us Muslim and separate us from the rest of creation who remain in ignorance and misguidance. And so we celebrate and rejoice, we do not mourn and commiserate. Allah says:
قُلْ بِفَضْلِ ٱللَّهِ وَبِرَحْمَتِهِ فَبِذَلِكَ فَلْيَفْرَحُواْ هُوَ خَيْرٌ مِّمَّا يَجْمَعُونَ
the translation of which is: “Say: ‘It is the favour of Allah and His mercy that should be the cause of their rejoicing. That is better than anything they accumulate.’” There is nothing in this world that has the capacity to bring us more satisfaction and joy than knowing we are doing and have done something pleasing to our Lord, and this is not a private joy, a quiet contentment, but one which overflows from every pore of our being, one which we must announce to the world. Allah says,
وَأَمَّا بِنِعْمَةِ رَبِّكَ فَحَدِّثْ
the translation of which is, “And as for the blessing of your Lord, speak out!” Exclaim, shout out, let the takbirs reverberate from the rafters and be heard by every part of Allah’s creation. Let every rock, tree and creature bear witness to your unbounded joy. And share that joy with your brothers and sisters, celebrate together in one voice and as one body, the umma of Muhammad, the chosen select. That is what we do on the Eid, and our Eid is fast approaching, comkng in but two or three days. This joy is general and universal, but there are some prescribed ways in which it should be shared and expressed. There are certain rulings and guidelines attached to this Eid.
Firstly, the end of Ramadan and hence the timing of the Eid is, like the beginning of the month, dependent upon sighting and executive decision, not on what is going on in other countries across the world. We will start looking for the moon on Saturday night. Many of the community of Cape Town gather at Sea Point for this purpose. Hajj Rhomeez will be taking a group of us from this mosque to join them. If the moon is seen, the Eid will be on Sunday. If it is not, it will be Monday.
Secondly, the day of Eid is a day of eating and drinking and partaking of Allah’s gifts, not fasting and abstinence. And, for that reason, it is strictly forbidden to fast. Anyone who does so has disobeyed His Lord, as has been mentioned in the hadith literature.
Thirdly, the Eid prayer is an emphasised sunna. Indeed, after the Witr prayer, it is perhaps the next most strongly-stressed sunna prayer in the din. It is best prayed in a Musalla, such as a public park, since such a large public gathering of Muslims inspires awe and demonstrates our strength and numbers, but it is also permissible to pray it in the mosque., and that is where we shall be praying it, inshallah.
Fourthly, the Eid prayer is for everyone, and everyone should attend, man or woman, young or old. Umm Atiya narrates that,
كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يُخرج الأبكارَ والعواتقَ وذواتِ الخدورِ والحيضِ في العيدين فأما الحِيضُ فيعتزِلْن المصلى ويشهِدْن دعوةَ المسلمين
“The Messenger of Allah used to encourage young unmarried women, older women, those who were secluded in the homes and even menstruating women go out to the Eid prayer. The menstruating, women, however, kept out of the Musalla and joined in the duas of the Muslims from afar.”
Fifthly, although it is permissible to pray the Eid prayer at any time up to Dhuhr, it is a prayer that is best prayed early. So we will be praying it at 8.00 am, inshallah.
Sixthly, it is recommended that you break your fast before coming to the prayer. In other words, you should eat and drink something on the day of Eid after Fajr and before coming to the prayer. Anas narrates that,
كان الرسول صلى الله عليه وسلم لا يغدو يومَ الفطر حتى يأكلَ تمراتٍ ويأكلَهن وِترا
“The Messenger of Allah did not leave to go to the Eid prayer on the day of Fitr until he had first eaten some dates, of which he would eat an odd number.”
Seventhly, it is strongly recommended to start your day with a ghusl. This ghusl should be done before setting out for the Eid prayer and may even be done before Fajr. Following this ghusl, you should don your best clothes, preferably including something new if you have it, and, in the case of men, put on your best perfume. Muadh ibn Jabal narrates that,
كان النبي يأمرُنا إذا غدونا إلى المصلى أن نلبسَ أجودَ ما نقدرُ عليه من الثيابِ لما في ذلك من إظهارِ النعمةِ والفرحِ والسرور
“The Prophet used to command us to go out to the Musalla wearing the best clothes we could find, since that was one of the best ways of showing our happiness and joy and the blessings we had received.” This is one occasion you must not dress down for, for the day is all about taking pride in the blessings that our Lord has granted us.
Eighthly, the Eid is a day of takbir. Allah says:
وَلِتُكْمِلُوا الْعِدَّةَ وَلِتُكَبِّرُوا اللَّهَ عَلَى مَا هَدَاكُمْ وَلَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ
the translation of which is, “You should complete the number of days and proclaim Allah’s greatness for the guidance He has given you so that hopefully you will be thankful.” The Messenger of Allah and his Companions used to fill this day with takbir, particularly the portion leading up to the Eid prayer, and they raised their voices in unison so much in these takbirs as they made their ways to the Musalla that they could be heard from every corner of the city.
We ask our Lord to give us the best of this day of Eid, and through our proclamations of His greatness, bring greatness and might back to this umma.
أقول قولي هذا وأستغفر الله لي ولكم ولسائر المسلمين من كل ذنب فاستغفروه إنه هو الغفور الرَّحيم
الحمد لله الحمد لله رب العالمين، وأشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وحده لا شريك له وأشهد أن محمداً عبده ورسوله، صلى الله وسلم وبارك عليه وعلى آله وصحبه، والتابعين وتابعي التابعين ومن تبعهم بإحسان إلى يوم الدين.
أما بعد! فيأيها الذين ءامنوا اتقوا الله ما استطعتم واسمعوا وأطيعوا وأنفقوا خيرا لأنفسكم. يا عباد الله أوصيكم وإياي بتقوى الله وطاعته وأحذركم وإياي عن معصيته ومخالفته. عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ رَضِي اللَّهم عَنْهممَا قَالَ: “فَرَضَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهم عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ زَكَاةَ الْفِطْرِ صَاعًا مِنْ تَمْرٍ أَوْ صَاعًا مِنْ شَعِيرٍ عَلَى الْعَبْدِ وَالْحُرِّ وَالذَّكَرِ وَالْأُنْثَى وَالصَّغِيرِ وَالْكَبِيرِ مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَأَمَرَ بِهَا أَنْ تُؤَدَّى قَبْلَ خُرُوجِ النَّاسِ إِلَى الصَّلَاةِ”
Ibn Umar narrated that the Messenger of Allah made it obligatory for every Muslim, slave or freeman, male or female, young or old, to pay a zakat al-Fitr of one sa’ of barley or one sa’ of dates, and commanded that it be paid before people went out to the ‘Eid prayer.”
بعث رسولُ الله صَلَّى اللَّهم عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ منادياً ينادي في فِجاجِ مكةَ ألا إن صدقةَ الفطرِ واجبةٌ على كلِ مسلم
And at-Tirmidhi transmitted that the Messenger of Allah sent out someone to call out in every street of Makka that Zakat ul-Fitr was obligatory upon every Muslim.
An essential part of this, the Eid al-Fitr, is Zakat ul-fitr. As we have said, the Eid is a day of joy, but there are families who lack the means to express their joy in the same way that others can, not even able to feed themselves. Such people can often feel left out of celebrations, and isolated from their brothers and sisters. So our Lord prescribed the Zakat ul-fitr. The Prophet said,
أَغنوهم عن طوافِ هذا اليوم
“Spare them the need of going around (begging) on this day.” Instead, let them feel part of the community. Not only does it bring happiness to the deprived, but purifies and lightens the load of the wealthy. The Prophet,
أَمَّا غَنِيُّكُمْ فَيُزَكِّيهِ اللَّهُ وَأَمَّا فَقِيرُكُمْ فَيَرُدُّ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى عَلَيْهِ أَكْثَرَ مِمَّا أَعْطَى
“As for the rich among you Allah will purify them, and as for the poor among you Allah will give them back more than they gave.”
This Zakat ul-Fitr is not just recommended, as some suppose, but obligatory, as the hadiths with which we started this second khutba state. And not just on those who are mukallaf, but on every Muslim, regardless of social status, age, sex or wealth, even those who are ordinarily eligible for zakat. The only one exception to this are those who are so poor that they do not even have the means to meet their families’ basic needs for the day of Eid.
Zakat ul-Fitr is paid by the master of a household on behalf of all those for whom he is financially responsible, even those who have only just been born, and should be paid in the basic staple foodstuffs of the country in which he lives, such as rice, wheat or barley, not in a cash substitute according to the most well-known positions of Imam Malik and Imam ash-Shafii. It is recommended that the food you give be of the highest possible quality, a standard that you would be pleased to receive yourself, although it is enough that be on a par with the quality that most people of that society customarily eat on a day-to-day basis.
As for the amount, a full sa’ of the sa’s of the Messenger of Allah should be given for every person. A sa’ is four mudds or four scooped double handfuls measured according to the size of the hands of the Messenger of Allah. This measurement is, of course, a volume, so the exact weight varies according to the substance that is given. With rice, it has been estimated that a sa’ is equivalent to approximately 2.2 kilograms.
Zakat ul-Fitr must be given before the Eid prayer, even a day or two beforehand, although the absolute best time to distribute it is between the time of Fajr on the day of the Eid and the Eid prayer. If you delay beyond the time of the Eid prayer, then you have missed the time of Zakat ul-Fitr, even though that does not exonerate you from having to pay it. The Prophet said,
من أدّاها قبل الصلاةِ فهي مقبولةٌ ومن أدّاها بعد الصلاةِ فهي صدقةٌ من الصدقات
“If you pay it before the prayer it is accepted, but if you pay it after the prayer it is the same as any other sadaqa.”
Unlike conventional zakat, there is no disapproval of distributing it yourself. Indeed, it is recommended to do so if you personally know people – and please note that they must be Muslim – who are eligible to receive it and whose Eid would be made more joyous as a result. But for many of us, we do not know who is truly in need and who is not, so in such cases, it is best to bring the zakat ul-fitr here to the mosque to be distributed by the amir and his representatives, for they have far greater knowledge of the condition and circumstances of the people. In order to facilitate that and make it easier for it to be distributed in time, I encourage people to bring their zakat ul-fitr today or tomorrow morning.
Before concluding, I would like to make mention of the other zakat, the one which is a pillar of this deen. It has become a custom with a lot of people to make Ramadan the time of year when they pay their yearly zakat and purify their wealth. If anyone has zakat due on their wealth, please meet with hajj Rhomeez afterwards and arrange with him for it to be collected.
We ask Allah to expand His fadl to everyone in the community. We ask that He make this coming Eid a time of joy for everyone in the community and everyone throughout the umma. We ask Him to accept our Ramadan from us, both our fasting and our prayer, and make it weigh heavily in the balance for us on the Day of Rising. And seal it for us with the best of possible of seals. Allahumma, give us husn al-khatima in everything that we do and shower us with your fadl and mercy in every moment of our lives. And give us the success to take whatever we have gained from Ramadan and use it to bring light to the dark times in which we live and restore your deen.
إِنَّ اللهَ وَمَلَائِكَتَهُ يُصَلُّونَ عَلَى النَّبِيِّ، يَا أَيُهَا الذِينَ آمَنُواْ صَلُّواْ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلِّمُواْ تَسْلِيماً. اللَّهُمَّ صَلِّ وَسَلِّمْ وَبَارِكْ عَلَيْهِ وَعَلَى آلِهِ وَصَحْبِهِ أَجْمَعِينَ.
وَارْضَ اللَّهُمَّ عَنِ الْخُلَفَاءِ الرَّاشِدِينَ أَبِي بَكْرٍ وَعُمَرَ وَعُثْمَانَ وَعَلِيٍّ، وَعن عائشةَ وسائر أزواج النبي، وَعَنْ سَائِرِ الصَّحَابَةِ أَجْمَعِينَ، خُصُوصاً اِلأَنْصَارَ مِنْهُمْ وَالمُهَاجِرِينَ، وَعَنِ التَّابِعِينَ وَتَابِعِي التَّابِعِينَ وَمَنْ تَبِعَهُمْ بِإِحْسَانٍ إِلَى يَوْمِ الدِّينِ.
اللَّهُمَّ اهْدِ وُلَاةَ أُمُورِ المُسْلِمِينَ لِمَا يُرْضِيكَ وَلِاتِّبَاعِ سُنَّةِ نَبِيِّكَ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ، وَثَبِّتْ أَقْدَامَهُمْ عَلَى الصِّرَاطِ المُسْتَقِيمِ، وَأَصْلِحْهُمْ يَا رَبَّ الْعَالَمِينَ.
اللَّهُمَّ بَارِكْ عَلَى شَيْخِنَا، وَعَلَى أَمِيرِنَا، وَعَلَى جَمِيعِ أُمَرَاءِ وَزُعَمَاءِ المُسْلِمِينَ.
اللَّهُمَّ بَارِكْ عَلَى المُسْلِمِينَ فِي هَذِهِ المَدِينَةِ، وَوَفِّقْهُمْ لِمَا تُحِبُّهُ وَتَرْضَاهُ يَا أَكْرَمَ الأَكْرَمِينَ.
اللَّهُمَّ أَعِزَّ الإِسْلَامَ وَالمُسِْلمِينَ (3) وَاخْذُلِ الْكُفْرَ وَالْكَافِرِينَ، وَانْصُرِ المُجَاهِدِينَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللهِ. وَاجْعَلْ كَلِمََتَكَ هِيَ العُلْيَا وَكَلِمَةَ الْكُفْرِ هِيَ السُّفْلَى.
رَبَّنَا ءَاتِنَا فِي الدُّنْيَا حَسَنَةً وَفِي الآخِرَةِ حَسَنَةً وَقَِنَا عَذَابَ النَّارِ.
إِنَّ اللهَ يَامُرُ بِالْعَدْلِ وَالإِحْسَانِ وَإِيتَاءِ ذِي الْقُرْبَى، وَيَنْهَى عَنِ الْفَحْشَاءِ وَالمُنكَرِ وَالْبَغْيِ، يَعِظُكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَذَّكَّرُونَ، وَلَذِكْرُ اللهِ أَكْبَرُ وَاللهُ يَعْلَمُ مَا تَصْنَعُونَ. وَقُومُواْ إِلَى صَلاتِكُمْ يَرْحَمُكُمُ اللهُ.