الحمد لله، الحمد لله الذي قسم الأوقات والأزمنة والآوان، وفضل يوم الجمعة على بقية الأيام، نحمده تعالى ونستعينه، ونشكره تعالى ونستغفره ونستغيثه، نعوذ بالله من شرور أنفسنا ومن سيئات أعمالنا، من يهد الله فهو المهتد ومن يضلل فلن تجد له وليا مرشدا، ونشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وحده لا شريك له، له الملك و له الحمد، يحيي ويميت، بيده الخير، وهو على كل شيء قدير، ونشهد أن سيدنا و مولانا محمداً عبده ورسوله، وحبيبه وصفيه، بلغ الرسالة وأدٌى الأمانة ونصح الأمة، النبي الأمي الذي أرسله الله بالهدى والدين الحق، بشيرا ونذيرا بين يدي الساعة، صلى الله عليه وسلم وعلى آله وأصحابه ومن تبعهم بإحسان إلى يوم الدين.
أما بعد! فيا عباد الله اتقوا الله حق تقاته ولا تموتن إلا وأنتم مسلمون. يأيها الذين ءامنوا اتقوا الله وقولوا قولا سديدا يصلح لكم أعمالكم ويغفر لكم ذنوبكم. ومن يطع الله ورسوله فقد فاز فوزا عظيما. اتقوا الله فيما أمر وانتهوا عما نها عنه وزجر.
Today is the day of Jumua, a gift from Allah to this umma and a sign of His love and preference for us and our Messenger. For it was a day that, despite being the best day of the week and most beloved in the eyes of our Lord, was completely forgotten and overlooked by the peoples before us. And it was only with the coming of the Messenger of Allah that its prominence was restored. The Prophet said,
ضل الله عن الجمعة من كان قبلنا، فكان لليهود يوم السبت، وكان للنصارى يوم الأحد، فجاء الله بنا فهدانا ليوم الجمعة، فجعل الجمعة والسبت والأحد، وكذلك هم تبع لنا يوم القيامة، نحن الآخرون من أهل الدنيا، والأولون يوم القيامة المقضي بينهم قبل الخلائق
“Those who came before us were misguided away from the Jumua, with the Jews replacing it with Saturday and the Christians with Sunday. Then Allah brought us and guided us back to the day of Jumua. As it is with the days – Jumua, Saturday, Sunday – so too will it be be on the Day of Qiyama – they will follow after us. We are the last of the people of this world, but will be the first on the Day of Qiyama and will undergo the Reckoning before the rest of creation.”
The excellence of this day is beyond dispute, it is an eid, it is the lord of all days, but why is it called Jumua? It is called Jumua because it is the day that the people jama‘u, that the people gather together. Its defining act is the Jumua prayer. The Jumua is one of the most outwardly manifest aspects of the deen, one of its main sha’air, the main, and in some cases the only, connection Muslims have with one another. Since the time of the Messenger of Allah until now, it has never ceased to be established. And as such, it is important that its correct form is maintained and its rulings and courtesies are observed and adhered to. When the Jumua is properly established throughout the lands, the deen is healthy and strong, but when it is lacking or distorted, then the opposite is true. If you read any book of Islamic history, you will see that one of the first steps taken by a commander or ruler upon conquering a land was to establish the Jumua and make sure that the khutaba made dua for the leader of the Muslims.
The form of this Jumua prayer is known from the Sunna of the Messenger of Allah and His Companions, but in the present day practices have entered into it in many mosques that have never been part of it.
The first of those is the pre-khutba talk. Now, this may seem to many to be a good idea, providing people with extra opportunity to learn about their deen, an opportunity that they rarely get given the busy nature of their lives. But, in reality it goes against the teaching of the Messenger of Allah, the one whom each one of us is taught to emulate and follow. Abu Dawud narrates in his Sunan that the Prophet,
نَهَى عَنِ التَّحَلُّقِ قَبْلَ الصَّلاةِ يَوْمَ الْجُمُعَةِ
“forbade gathering in circles before the prayer on the day of Jumua.” While there is some difference of opinion as to whether this refers just to study circles which disrupt the way people sit in the mosque or to lessons in general regardless of how people are seated, the implication is that whatever distracts from the upcoming Jumua, mentally, spiritually or physically is to be avoided. There are numerous reasons for this:
Firstly, the time before the imam mounts the mimbar is very valuable – there are few times like it throughout the week. And it is a time that has been specifically set aside for prayer, dhikr, salawat on the Prophet, reflection, and preparing oneself for the jumua that is to come. This is clear from the words and actions of the Prophet and his Companions. For example, the Prophet said,
من غسل يوم الجمعة واغتسل وبكر وابتكر ثم صلى ما بدا له غفر له ما بينه وبين الجمعة التي تليها
“Whoever does ghusl on the day of Jumua, then goes out early (to the mosque), then does whatever prayers seem fit to him, will be forgiven all the wrong actions he does from that Jumua to the next.” It is very hard to concentrate on doing any of these acts when someone is loudly addressing the entire mosque with a microphone, if not impossible. How is a person meant to greet the mosque? It is a usurpation of those important moments before the entrance of the imam when the angels stand by the doorway to the mosque recording the right actions of all inside.
Secondly, its presence detracts from the khutba itself, and lessens its importance in many people’s eyes. It turns the khutba proper into something ceremonial, something that the people struggle to listen to and concentrate on because they do not understand any of it.
Thirdly, especially in this age of nine-to-five jobs and limited lunch breaks, it lengthens the length of time they are expected to be at the mosque. For people have come to believe that the pre-khutba talk is part of the program of the Jumua. Indeed, many now think that it is the khutba. If you ask someone what the imam said in the khutba, he will tell you what the imam said in his pre-khutba talk. So a practice that is at best permissible has come to be viewed as wajib by a large portion of the Muslims, especially as this talk is given every week without fail. And that brings us to our fourth point, it is the imam’s duty to make clear to people which parts of their deen are wajib and which parts are recommended or only mubah. The Prophet was very careful to avoid doing certain things publicly, such as tarawih, for fear of making them obligatory and making things unnecessarily hard for his umma. And for the same reason, Imam Malik disapproved of fasting the six days of Shawwal immediately after Ramadan for fear that people would start to think they were obligatory. And that is exactly what has happened to the pre-khutba talk, but it is not a khutba since Jumua only starts after the adhan.
The second thing that has become common is for people to come into the mosque after the imam has already ascended the minbar and pray tahiyyatu’l’masjid. Aside from the fact that by arriving so late, they have missed out on all the reward that is on offer for coming to jumua early or on time, for the Messenger of Allah told us that the Books of the angels are closed when the imam comes in, saying,
مَن اغْتَسَلَ يَوْمَ الْجُمُعَةِ غُسْلَ الْجَنَابَةِ ثُمَّ رَاحَ فَكَأَنَّمَا قَرَّبَ بَدَنَةً وَمَنْ رَاحَ فِي السَّاعَةِ الثَّانِيَةِ فَكَأَنَّمَا قَرَّبَ بَقَرَةً وَمَنْ رَاحَ فِي السَّاعَةِ الثَّالِثَةِ فَكَأَنَّمَا قَرَّبَ كَبْشًا أَقْرَنَ وَمَنْ رَاحَ فِي السَّاعَةِ الرَّابِعَةِ فَكَأَنَّمَا قَرَّبَ دَجَاجَةً وَمَنْ رَاحَ فِي السَّاعَةِ الْخَامِسَةِ فَكَأَنَّمَا قَرَّبَ بَيْضَةً فَإِذَا خَرَجَ الْإِمَامُ حَضَرَت الْمَلَائِكَةُ يَسْتَمِعُونَ الذِّكْرَ
“Anyone who does ghusl on the day of Jumu‘a, the same as for janaba, and then goes in the first part of the time, it is as if he has sacrificed a camel. If he goes in the second part of the time, it is as if he has sacrificed a cow. If he goes in the third part of the time, it is as if he has sacrificed a horned ram. If he goes in the fourth part of the time, it is as if he has sacrificed a hen. If he goes in the fifth part of the time, it is as if he has offered an egg. When the Imam comes out, the angels settle down to listen to the reminder.” Aside from this fact, it is a time when prayer is forbidden, not just disliked, like the time of sunrise and the time of sunset. This is the position of the fuqaha of the madhhab of Malik, following the sunna of those who came before them.
For example, there is a hadith narrated by Abdallah ibn Busr that the Prophet commanded a man to sit down immediately, not to pray. And although there is also a hadith that seems to indicate the opposite, they have ruled that either it is abrogated or its ruling is specific to the man in question. The proof for this is found in the practice of the Sahaba of the Messenger of Allah after his death. They did not pray while the imam was on the mimbar, they did not engage in any extraneous activity – all they did was listen. Imam Malik reports in the Muwatta on the authourty of Tha’laba that in the time of Umar ibn al-Khattab, they used to pray on the day of Jumua until Umar came out. Then, when he came out and sat on the minbar, and the muadhdhins called their adhans, they might sit there and talk to one another. But when the muadhdhins fell silent and Umar stood to give the khutba, they all listened and not one of them spoke.” In other words, nafila prayers stopped when Umar came out and speaking and all other forms of distraction stopped when he stood to give the khutba, for listening to the khutba is wajib, obligatory, on everyone present. Allah says,
وإذا قرئ القرآن فاستمعوا له وأنصتوا لعلكم ترحمون
the translation of which is, “When the Qur’an is recited, listen to it and be quiet so that hopefully you will gain mercy.” According to the fuqaha, this ruling applies to the khutba as it necessarily contains Quran. And it is impossible to listen to something properly when part of your attention is directed elsewhere, as is the case with talking, or when your whole attention is directed elsewhere, as is the case with prayer. All acts aside from listening are classified as laghw, no matter how slight or innocuous. The Prophet said,
إِذَا قُلْتَ لِصَاحِبِكَ أَنْصِتْ وَالْإِمَامُ يَخْطُبُ يَوْمَ الْجُمُعَةِ فَقَدْ لَغَوْتَ
“Even saying, ‘Be quiet!’ to your companion while the Imam is speaking on the Day of Jumu‘a constitutes idle chatter.” In other words, commanding to right, reminding someone to do something obligatory in the deen, is laghw at that moment. And that is wajib, unlike praying two rakats which is mustahhab or sunna. And if you engage in laghw, as the Prophet said,
ومن لغى فلا جمعة له
“Whoever chatters (during the khutba), will have no Jumu‘a”. In other words, your Jumu‘a will be worthless and any benefit he might have accrued from attending will have gone.
You must be like the ma’mum in the prayer, and follow the imam’s every word and do nothing extraneous to that. The khutba has taken the place of two rakats of the dhuhr prayer. It is only because of the presence of a khutba that we pray the jumua prayer as two rakats. Those who miss the jumua totally must pray four in its place, that is the consensus of the Muslims.
If a person were to enter a mosque and find the imam in the Dhuhr prayer, would he pray two sunna rak‘ats or join the jama’a immediately? He would do the latter, of course, for the obligatory always takes precedence. Our own Prophet has said there is no nafila (i.e. no voluntary rak‘ats) when the obligatory prayer has been embarked upon. The same is true when it comes to the Jumu‘a – as soon as the khutba begins, all – and I repeat all – supererogatory actions stop. That is the position of the people of Madinah where 10,000 companions remained praying the Jumu‘a prayer in the Mosque of the Prophet. That is the position of the Umm al-Madhahib.
أقول قولي هذا وأستغفر الله لي ولكم ولسائر المسلمين من كل ذنب فاستغفروه إنه هو الغفور الرَّحيم.
الحمد لله الحمد لله رب العالمين، وأشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وحده لا شريك له وأشهد أن محمداً عبده ورسوله، صلى الله وسلم وبارك عليه وعلى آله وصحبه، والتابعين وتابعي التابعين ومن تبعهم بإحسان إلى يوم الدين.
أما بعد! فيأيها الذين ءامنوا اتقوا الله ما استطعتم واسمعوا وأطيعوا وأنفقوا خيرا لأنفسكم. يا عباد الله أوصيكم وإياي بتقوى الله وطاعته وأحذركم وإياي عن معصيته ومخالفته. قال الله تعالى في كتابه العزيز: فَإِذَا قُضِيَتِ الصَّلَاةُ فَانْتَشِرُوا فِي الْأَرْض وابتغوا من فضل الله
Allah says in His Noble Quran, the translation of which is, “Then when the prayer is finished spread through the earth and seek the bounty of Allah” The time after the prayer has finished is also a very important one, for while the time leading up to the Jumua is about worship, remembrance and reflection – strengthening the ties between yourself and your Lord, the time afterwards is about mixing and socialising – strengthening your ties with other people. First you gather for Allah, then you gather with the people. For gathering implies interaction. And it is for that reason, and due to the Sunna of the Messenger of Allah whom Ibn Umar reports as leaving the confines of the mosque before doing any nafila prayers, that the Muslims in Madina used to prefer people not to do supererogatory prayers in the mosque after the Jumua. Abu Zayd al-Qayrawani says in his Risala,
وأحبُّ إلينا إن يتصرف بعد فراغه ولا يتنفل في المسجد
“We prefer that the imam leave after completing his jumua and not do supererogatory prayers in the mosque.” Instead, you should meet people, invite them to your homes and feed them. Eating together is one of the best ways of strengthening your bonds, and any act of generosity or hospitality today is worth more than that on other days. The famous Tabi‘i, Ka‘b al-Ahbar, said,
الصدقة فيه أعظم من الصدقة في سائر الأيام
“Giving sadaqa on this day is better than giving sadaqa on other days.” And it is also a time for seeking the bounty of Allah – in other words, buying and selling. The prohibition against that finishes when the prayer finishes, and instead of being forbidden, it becomes encouraged. And that is why we hold our market here at this time outside the mosque.
As for those who insist on doing the nafila prayers after the Jumua, there are two things I would like to say to them, one to request and one to suggest.
Firstly, please do not pray at the back of the mosque or by the doors, but instead come to the front or to the far side. That way, you are not preventing people from leaving or forcing people to break your qibla as they try to find their way out.
Secondly, do not do those rakats immediately. Instead, first spend a bit of time meeting with people and greeting them. Otherwise, you may miss the opportunity as they may have already left by the time you have finished. This was the teaching of the Messenger of Allah. Muslim transmitted that Muawiya said,
إذا صَلَّيْتَ الْجُمُعَةَ فلا تَصِلْهَا بِصَلَاةٍ حتى تَكَلَّمَ أو تَخْرُجَ، فإن رَسُولَ الله أَمَرَنَا بِذَلِكَ: أَنْ لَا تُوصَلَ صَلَاةٌ بِصَلَاةٍ حتى نَتَكَلَّمَ أو نَخْرُجَ
“When you have prayed Jumua, do not join any prayers to it until you have first spoken or gone out [from the mosque]. This was what the Messenger of Allah instructed us, to not join a prayer to a prayer until we speak or go out.” We ask Allah to give us and the strength and the sincerity to make best use of this day and not waste any of its moments. And we ask Him to accept our Jumua and make it the means of joining the hearts of the Muslims in this great city and reuniting them once more in common purpose, so that they can act as one body and re-establish the deen in its fullness and entirety. We ask that He accept our duas and make them coincide with the sa’a al-istijaba, and give us true sincerity and unwavering intention.
إِنَّ اللهَ وَمَلَائِكَتَهُ يُصَلُّونَ عَلَى النَّبِيِّ، يَا أَيُهَا الذِينَ آمَنُواْ صَلُّواْ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلِّمُواْ تَسْلِيماً.
اللَّهُمَّ صَلِّ وَسَلِّمْ وَبَارِكْ عَلَيْهِ وَعَلَى آلِهِ وَصَحْبِهِ أَجْمَعِينَ. وَارْضَ اللَّهُمَّ عَنِ الْخُلَفَاءِ الرَّاشِدِينَ أَبِي بَكْرٍ وَعُمَرَ وَعُثْمَانَ وَعَلِيٍّ، وعن أم المومنين عائشة التي أمرنا الله في سورة النور أن ندافع عنها، وَعَنْ سَائِرِ الصَّحَابَةِ أَجْمَعِينَ، خُصُوصاً اِلأَنْصَارَ مِنْهُمْ وَالمُهَاجِرِينَ، وَعَنِ التَّابِعِينَ وَتَابِعِي التَّابِعِينَ وَمَنْ تَبِعَهُمْ بِإِحْسَانٍ إِلَى يَوْمِ الدِّينِ.
اللَّهُمَّ اهْدِ وُلَاةَ أُمُورِ المُسْلِمِينَ لِمَا يُرْضِيكَ وَلِاتِّبَاعِ سُنَّةِ نَبِيِّكَ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ، وَثَبِّتْ أَقْدَامَهُمْ عَلَى الصِّرَاطِ المُسْتَقِيمِ، وَأَصْلِحْهُمْ يَا رَبَّ الْعَالَمِينَ.
اللَّهُمَّ بَارِكْ عَلَى شَيْخِنَا، وَعَلَى أَمِيرِنَا، وَعَلَى جَمِيعِ أُمَرَاءِ وَزُعَمَاءِ المُسْلِمِينَ.
اللَّهُمَّ بَارِكْ عَلَى المُسْلِمِينَ فِي هَذِهِ المَدِينَةِ، وَوَفِّقْهُمْ لِمَا تُحِبُّهُ وَتَرْضَاهُ يَا أَكْرَمَ الأَكْرَمِينَ.
اللَّهُمَّ أَعِزَّ الإِسْلَامَ وَالمُسِْلمِينَ، وَاخْذُلِ الْكُفْرَ وَالْكَافِرِينَ، وَانْصُرِ المُجَاهِدِينَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللهِ. وَاجْعَلْ كَلِمََتَكَ هِيَ العُلْيَا وَكَلِمَةَ الْكُفْرِ هِيَ السُّفْلَى.
رَبَّنَا ءَاتِنَا فِي الدُّنْيَا حَسَنَةً وَفِي الآخِرَةِ حَسَنَةً وَقَِنَا عَذَابَ النَّارِ.
إِنَّ اللهَ يَامُرُ بِالْعَدْلِ وَالإِحْسَانِ وَإِيتَاءِ ذِي الْقُرْبَى، وَيَنْهَى عَنِ الْفَحْشَاءِ وَالمُنكَرِ وَالْبَغْيِ، يَعِظُكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَذَّكَّرُونَ، وَلَذِكْرُ اللهِ أَكْبَرُ وَاللهُ يَعْلَمُ مَا تَصْنَعُونَ. وَقُومُواْ إِلَى صَلاتِكُمْ يَرْحَمُكُمُ اللهُ.